Stalin documentary - part 2



  1. ^ Other Soviet penal labour systems not included in GULAG were: (a) camps for the prisoners of war captured by the Soviet Union, administered by GUPVI (b) filtration camps created during World War II for temporary detention of Soviet Ostarbeiters and prisoners of war while they were being screened by the security organs in order to "filter out" the black sheep, (b) "special settlements" for internal exiles including "kulaks" and deported ethnic minorities, such as Volga Germans, Poles, Balts, Caucasians, Crimean Tartars, and others. Each of them kept millions of people. Many hundreds of thousand were also sentenced to forced labour at their normal place of work (Applebaum, pages 579-580)
  2. ^ a b Applebaum, Anne (2003) Gulag: A History. Doubleday. ISBN 0767900561
  3. ^ Stephen Wheatcroft. The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930-45. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 48, No. 8 (Dec., 1996), pp. 1319-1353
  4. ^ a b Anne Applebaum ? Inside the Gulag[dead link]
  5. ^ Gulag The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
  6. ^ "Gulag: a History of the Soviet Camps". Arlindo-correia.com. http://www.arlindo-correia.com/041003.html. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  7. ^ According to Conquest, between 1939 and 1953, there was, in the work camps, a 10% death rate per year, rising to 20% in 1938. Robert Conquest in Victims of Stalinism: A Comment. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 49, No. 7 (Nov., 1997), pp. 1317-1319 states:"We are all inclined to accept the Zemskov totals (even if not as complete) with their 14 million intake to Gulag 'camps' alone, to which must be added 4-5 million going to Gulag 'colonies', to say nothing of the 3.5 million already in, or sent to, 'labour settlements'. However taken, these are surely 'high' figures."
  8. ^ Getty, Rittersporn, Zemskov. Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-War Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence. The American Historical Review, Vol. 98, No. 4 (Oct., 1993), pp. 1017-1049, see also http://www.etext.org/Politics/Staljin/Staljin/articles/AHR/AHR.html[dead link]
  9. ^ Ellman, Michael. Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments Europe-Asia Studies. Vol 54, No. 7, 2002, 1151-1172
  10. ^ a b Applebaum, Anne (2003) Gulag: A History. Doubleday. ISBN 0767900561 pg 583
  11. ^ Getty, Rittersporn, Zemskov, op. cit.
  12. ^ "Repressions". Publicist.n1.by. http://publicist.n1.by/articles/repressions/repressions_gulag2.html. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  13. ^ "What Were Their Crimes?". Gulaghistory.org. http://gulaghistory.org/nps/onlineexhibit/stalin/crimes.php. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  14. ^ a b "Repressions". Publicist.n1.by. http://publicist.n1.by/articles/repressions/repressions_organy1.html. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  15. ^ News Release: Forced labor camp artifacts from Soviet era on display at NWTC[dead link]
  16. ^ Anne Applebaum. "GULAG: a history". http://www.anneapplebaum.com/gulag/intro.html. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  17. ^ Antony Barnett (2004-02-01). "Revealed: the gas chamber horror of North Korea's gulag". Guardian Unlimited. http://www.guardian.co.uk/korea/article/0,2763,1136483,00.html#article_continue. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  18. ^ "'Gulag': The Other Killing Machine". The New York Times. May 11, 2003.
  19. ^ D.J. Dallin and B.I. Nicolayesky, Forced Labour in Soviet Russia, London 1948, p. 153.
  20. ^ See, e.g. Michael Jakobson, Origins of the GULag: The Soviet Prison Camp System 1917?34, Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1993, p. 88.
  21. ^ See, e.g. Galina M. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism: The Gulag in the Totalitarian System, Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2000, Chapter 2.
  22. ^ Cf, e.g., Istorija stalinskogo Gulaga: konec 1920-kh - pervaia polovina 1950-kh godov; sobranie dokumentov v 7 tomakh, ed. by V. P. Kozlov et al., Moskva: ROSSPEN 2004, vol. 4: Naselenie GULAGa
  23. ^ Franciszek Proch, Poland's Way of the Cross, New York 1987 P.146
  24. ^ Project In Posterum [1]
  25. ^ Encyklopedia PWN 'KAMPANIA WRZEŚNIOWA 1939', last retrieved on 10 December 2005, Polish language
  26. ^ (English) Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2004). Between Nazis and Soviets: Occupation Politics in Poland, 1939-1947. Lexington Books. ISBN 0739104845
  27. ^ "Robert Conquest 1978. Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps. OUP". My.telegraph.co.uk. http://my.telegraph.co.uk/beanbean/blog/2008/05/02/a_polish_life_5_starobielsk_and_the_transsiberian_railway. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  28. ^ "Michael Hope - "Polish deportees in the Soviet Union"". Wajszczuk.v.pl. http://www.wajszczuk.v.pl/english/drzewo/czytelnia/michael_hope.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  29. ^ GULAG: a History, Anne Applebaum
  30. ^ Zemskov, Gulag, Sociologičeskije issledovanija, 1991, No. 6, pp. 14-15.
  31. ^ a b c "Repressions". Publicist.n1.by. http://publicist.n1.by/articles/repressions/repressions_gulag1.html. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  32. ^ Mark Elliott. "The United States and Forced Repatriation of Soviet Citizens, 1944-47," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 2 (June, 1973), pp. 253-275.
  33. ^ "Repatriation - The Dark Side of World War II". Fff.org. http://www.fff.org/freedom/0895a.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  34. ^ "''Forced Repatriation to the Soviet Union: The Secret Betrayal''". Hillsdale.edu. 1939-09-01. http://www.hillsdale.edu/news/imprimis/archive/issue.asp?year=1988&month=12. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  35. ^ "''The warlords: Joseph Stalin''". Channel4.com. 1953-03-06. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/t-z/warlords1stalin.html. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  36. ^ "Remembrance (Zeithain Memorial Grove)". Stsg.de. 1941-08-16. http://www.stsg.de/main/zeithain/geschichte/gedenken/index_en.php. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  37. ^ "Soviet Prisoners of War: Forgotten Nazi Victims of World War II". Historynet.com. 1941-09-08. http://www.historynet.com/wars_conflicts/world_war_2/3037296.html. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  38. ^ "Sorting Pieces of the Russian Past". Hoover.org. 2002-10-23. http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3063246.html. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  39. ^ "Patriots ignore greatest brutality". Smh.com.au. 2007-08-13. http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/patriots-ignore-greatest-brutality/2007/08/12/1186857342382.html?page=2. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  40. ^ "Joseph Stalin killer file". Moreorless.au.com. 2001-05-23. http://www.moreorless.au.com/killers/stalin.html. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  41. ^ (?Военно-исторический журнал? (?Military-Historical Magazine?), 1997, №5. page 32)
  42. ^ Земское В.Н. К вопросу о репатриации советских граждан. 1944-1951 годы // История СССР. 1990. № 4 (Zemskov V.N. On repatriation of Soviet citizens. Istoriya SSSR., 1990, No.4
  43. ^ Germans Find Mass Graves at an Ex-Soviet Camp New York Times, September 24, 1992
  44. ^ Ex-Death Camp Tells Story Of Nazi and Soviet Horrors New York Times, December 17, 2001
  45. ^ http://www.etext.org/Politics/Staljin/Staljin/articles/AHR/AHR.html
  46. ^ http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2007/0313/tema06.php
  47. ^ The Gulag Collection: Paintings of Nikolai Getman[dead link]
  48. ^ Jonathan Brent. Inside the Stalin Archives: Discovering the New Russia. Atlas & Co., 2008 (ISBN 0977743330) pg. 12 Introduction online (PDF file)
  49. ^ Leonid Borodkin and Simon Ertz 'Forced Labour and the Need for Motivation: Wages and Bonuses in the Stalinist Camp System', Comparative Economic Studies, June 2005, Vol.47, Iss. 2, pp. 418?436.
  50. ^ "Demographic Losses Due to Repressions", by Anatoly Vishnevsky, Director of the Center for Human Demography and Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, (Russian)
  51. ^ "The History of the GULAG", by Oleg V.Khlevniuk
  52. ^ Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System, p. 131.
  53. ^ "Система исправительно-трудовых лагерей в СССР". Memo.ru. http://www.memo.ru/history/nkvd/gulag/gulag3.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  54. ^ "Coercion versus Motivation: Forced Labor in Norilsk" (PDF). http://media.hoover.org/documents/0817939423_75.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  55. ^ Prosecuting the Gulag, Moscow Times, January 21, 2005, retrieved 18 January 2007.

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